National Liberation Front
Movement of Society for Peace
The Greens-Green Alternative
Austrian People's party
Social Democratic Party of Austria
National Unity Front
Botswana Congress Party
Botswana National Front
People´s Democratic Movement
Front Social Démocrate
New Democratic Party
Liberal Party of Canada
In each province, 2 out of the first 5 names on a list must be women in each of the 48 provinces
The HMS aims to ensure that one-fifth of candidates at the regional level are women. In districts with small magnitudes, one of every three candidates should be a woman.
The national statutes states that at all levels within the party, as well as on electoral lists, the representation of women must be respected. This is specified in the provincial party statutes, percentages varying between 30 and 50 percent.
In 2002 the ALP introduced a 40 percent quota for party positions, union delegations and for pre-selection for public office and positions at a State and federal level, building on a 35% quota introduced in 1994. Either of the sexes shall be represented by no less than 40 percent on party electoral lists. (National Platform and Consitution 2009, Article 10a.)
GA has a 50 percent quota for women on party lists (1993).
ÖVP has a 33.3 percent quota for women on party lists (1995).
SPÖ has a 40 percent quota for women on party lists (1985).
In Article 31 of its founding statutes from 2003, UN writes that women shall be represented by 50 percent at all levels of the party structures, including candidate lists. This has not always been put into practice.
In 1999 the Botswana Congress Party introduced a 30 percent quota for women on electoral lists. The party has not always met this target. However, in the 2010 national congress elections the party managed to reach the 30 percent target.
In 1999 the Botswana National Front introduced a 30 percent quota for women on electoral lists. The party has not always met this target.
In 1996 the Cameeroon People's Democratic Movement introduced a 25-30 percent quota for women on electoral lists
SDF has adopted a 25 percent quota.
In 1985 the NDP adopted a target of 50 percent women among its candidates at federal elections. It has also adopted (and is enforcing) a policy whereby, in each federal riding, at least one woman must be in the running at the nomination stage.
In 1993 the LPC set a target to elect 25 percent women.
Party for Democracy
Socialist Party of Chile
Christian Democratic Party
National Liberation Party
Christian-Social Unity Party
Citizen Action Party
Libertarian Movement Party
Social Democratic Party
Movement of Social Democrats
Democratic Rally of Cyprus Social
Democrats Ivorian Popular Front
National Liberation Front Farabundo Martí
Social Democratic Party of Germany
The Left Party
Alliance 90/The Greens
Pan-Hellenic Socialist Movement
Guatemalan Revolutionary Unity
Hungarian Socialist Party
Politics Can be Different
The Social Democratic
The Left-Green Movement
Progressive Party (Centre Party)
Israel Labor Party
Grand National Party
Neither men nor women should be represented on electoral lists by more than 60 percent (Party statutes, article 7). However, this provision has been weakly enforced (Ríos Tobar, et al. 2008, p. 18, 24).
Since 2003, the quota has been twofold: Neither of the sexes shall be represented on electoral lists by more than 60 percent; neither sex shall occupy more than 70 percent of the seats in parliament (Party statutes, Article 40). However, this provision has not been adhered to in practice (Ríos Tobar, et al. 2008, p. 18, 24).
According to article 105 of the party statutes, PDC has a 20 percent quota for women on electoral lists. This provision was adopted in 1996 but has been weakly enforced (Ríos Tobar, et al. 2008, p. 18, 24).
PLN alternates men and women candidates on electoral lists (Article 85 and 108, party statutes; Jager Contreras 2008, p 15-19). Nominations to be defined by provincial election in National Plenary Assembly, is to respect the representation of at least 40% for each gender. (Article 85, Partido Liberacion Nacional Estatuto).
PUSC alternates men and women candidates on electoral lists. In the integration of all party structures, no more than 60% of its members shall be of the same gender, except for the District Assemblies and the Women's Front. The configuration of all candidate lists to elected office shall be held in such a way that no more than 60% of the members are of the same gender.
50 percent of the candidates must be women, placed at every second place (zipper system) on electoral lists (Article 36, party statutes; Jager Contreras 2008, p 15-19).
At least 40% of the seats to be allocated, in a possible government of the Libertarian Movement Party, will be occupied by women. Future internal party structures shall be formed with at least 40% women. The positions to elective office that are presented by the party must be integrated of at least 40% of women, who must be placed in electable positions. (Article 72, Partido Movimiento Libertario Estatuto).
In 1996 SDP introduced a voluntary party quota of 40 percent. In 2000 the party adopted a formal 40 percent quota for men and women on electoral lists, but no rank-order rules.
KISOS has a 30 percent quota for women.
DISY has a 30 per cent (30%) gender quota in its candidates for the parliament, municipal and European elections, as well as for the party's internal structures.
25 percent of those elected by the party must be women. If a local party organization has failed to nominate 25 percent women among its top candidates, then the Social Democratic Women's Organization has the right to nominate extra women.
Since 2001 the Ivorian Public Front has a 30 percent quota for women at all levels of its structures, including electoral candidate lists. The quota has not always been put into practice. (FPI statutes, article 14, June 2009.)
FMLN has a 35 percent quota for women (party statutes of 1996, article 9).
The PS has a 50 percent quota for electoral lists (1990).
At least 40 % of each gender in boards and lists (Party Statutes, Article 11 , Electoral Code of the Party, Article 4 & 8 ).
On nomination lists, the first two and then every other place are reserved for women (Party Statutes, Article 10 ).
Since 1986, Alliance 90/The Greens have had a 50 percent quota for women on party lists (Geissel 2008, p. 61).
At least one-third of CDU electoral lists and party officials should be women (1996). If this quota is not met, the internal elections have to be repeated (Party Statutes, Article 15 [2-3]; Geissel 2008, p. 62).
PASOK has a 40 percent minimum quota for women on party lists (Socialist International Women).
UNE has a 40 percent quota for women on electoral lists since 2007 (López Robles 2008, p. 15).
At least 30 percent of each sex should be represented on electoral lists (2002; López Robles 2008, p. 14).
MSzP has a 20 percent quota for women.
In the party's National Assembly and European Parliament electoral lists maximum two repeated candidates of the same sex may follow each other.
At electoral lists, the main rule is to strive towards gender equality. In all elected bodies within the party, each sex should be represented with no less than 40 percent. If, among the candidates, one sex is represented by less than 40 percent, these candidates will be nominated without a vote. (Party statutes 1999, article 2:10.)
When candidates are chosen for positions at all levels in the party structure, as well as for electoral lists, gender equality shall be observed. (Party Statutes 1999, article 3.)
When choosing candidates to all levels of the internal party structures and for electoral lists, each sex must be represented with at least 40 percent, unless for obvious and manifest impediments.(Party statutes 2005, article 13:8.)
Since 1997, ILP has a 25 percent quota, to be increased gradually in order to reach 40 percent in 2015. Placement is decided ad hoc for each election
Women should comprise 40 percent of party lists.
At least one woman must be among the top 10 after the primaries.
PD has a 50 percent quota for women, placed with strict alternation on electoral lists. (Party statutes 2008, article 19)
The Democratic Party has a policy of affirmative action that reserves one third of all seats for women (which has not always been put into practice).
GNP supports quotas of 30 percent for women candidates. (see Kim 2000)
Social Democratic Party
Christian Social People's Party
Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party
The Green Party
Alliance for Democracy in Mali
The Socialist Union of Popular Forces
Front for the Liberation of Mozambique
South West Africa People's Organisation
Sandinista Front for National Liberation
Liberal and constitutionalist party
Sandinista Renovation Movement
National Movement for a Society in Development
Socialist Left Party
Norwegian Labour Party
Christian People's Party
National Republic Association
Authentic Radical Liberal Party
National Union of Ethical Citizens
Gabriela Women's Party
Philippines Democratic Socialist Party
Social Democratic Party
People's Party - Movement for a Democratic Slovakia
Liberal Democracy Party
African National Congress
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party
Socialist Party of Catalonia
Initiative for Catalonia- Green
Republican Left of Catalonia
Nationalist Galician Block
Social Democratic Party
Social Democratic Party of Switzerland
Socialist Party of Uruguay
Zimbabwe African National Union Patriotic Front
Movement for Democratic Change - Tsvangirai
SDP has a quota on at least one-third of either sex.
The party is targeting a 33 percent quota for women on their party lists.
The party applies a 50 percent quota in the party body and on the electoral lists.
LSAP has adopted a quota for internal positions (about 33 percent). The target is parity.
The party seeks to apply parity in party bodies, positions and on lists.
ADEMA - PASJ has a 30 percent quota.
The Labour Party has 20 percent quota for women on party lists.
PRI has a 50 percent quota for women (article 38, party statutes).
USFP has a 20 percent quota for party lists.
FRELIMO has used gender quotas since 1994. The party's policy requires that 40% of candidates to national assembly and local government should be women. In addition, the quota system was accompanied by a commitment to balance the distribution of men and women through the list. Currently, FRELIMO holds 191 seats of a total of 250 in the national assembly, in effect a three-fourths majority.
SWAPO has a 50 percent quota with a zebra-system (alternation between men and women) for women on electoral lists for local elections.
National lists are in principle alternated between men and women, although other concerns such as age and ethnicity are also considered. Congress has the last say on the composition of lists (1987).
GL has quotas for women (percentage not confirmed).
FSLN has a 30 percent quota for women (Party statutes, Article 106; Samqui 2008, p. 8).
PLC has a combined 40 percent quota for women and youth on electoral lists (Party statutes, Article 76; Samqui 2008, p. 8).
Candidate lists must consist of at least 40 percent women and men, respectively (Party statutes, Article 7; Samqui 2008, p. 8).
Prior to multiparty elections in the 1990s, the MNSD set aside 5 seats for women through the quota system adopted by the party. In 1999 the party adopted a 10 percent quota for women on electoral lists (party statutes, article 93).
Since 1975, SV has had a 40 percent quota for both sexes on electoral lists (Freidenvall, et. al. 2006, p. 71).
In all election lists there is a 50 percent quota for both sexes, and both sexes shall be represented in the first two positions (Party Constitution, §12:9). Quotas first used in 1983 (Matland 2005).
There is a 40 percent quota for either sex in all elections and nominations, since 1989 (Laws of the Centre Party, §4:4).
KrF has had a 40 percent quota for both sexes since 1993 (Freidenvall, et. al. 2006, p. 71).
ANR has a 30 percent quota for women on electoral lists (Party statues 2001, Article 72; Pereira & González 2008, p. 4-5).
One third of candidates on electoral lists must be women (Party statutes 2006, Article 9; Pereira & González 2008, p. 4-5).
UNACE has a 30 percent quota for women on electoral lists (Party statutes 2002, Article 76; Pereira & González 2008, p. 4-5).
An all Women's party, representing 250 women's organisations. The party got 3.7 percent of the votes in the 2004 national elections.
PDSP has a 25 percent quota for women.
The Democratic Party has adopted a 30 percent quota.
In 2001 PSDR (Romanian Social Democratic Party) and PDSR (Socialist Democratic Party of Romania) merged into a new political party; PSD. Prior to the 2004 election PSD adopted a 30 percent gender quota.
HZDS has a parity target.
In 1992 the United List of Social Democrats introduced a firm 33 percent quota for both genders. In the 1996 election 42 percent of the party's candidates were women, but not even one of these got elected. The quota was changed from firm to soft in 1997, and the party has currently a 40 percent target. (In 2005 the party shortened it's name to Socialni Demokrati).
In 1998 the quota was changed to a gender neutral 25 percent, but is supposed to increase by 3 percentage points in every upcoming election until it reaches 40 percent.
In 2006 ANC adopted a 50% gender quota in local elections. The quota was extended to national elections as well in 2009. The party statute reads: "the provision of a quota of not less than fifty percent of women in all elected structures" (ANC Constitution, Article 6 ). Currently, ANC has won 264 seats in the national assembly, little less than two-thirds majority.
Since 1997, PSOE has a 40 percent quota for either sex (party statutes, 2009, article 7k). The party first introduced a quota rule, at 25 percent, in 1988.
Since 1997, IU has a 40 percent quota for either sex (party statutes 2008, article 7). The quota was first introduced in 1989, at 25 percent.
PSC has a 40 percent quota for either sex (2000). The quota was first introduced in 1982 (12 percent) and enlarged in 1987 (15 percent), 1990 (25 percent) and 1996 (30 percent).
ICV has a 40 percent quota for either sex (2002). The quota was first introduced in 1991 (30 percent).
ERC has a 40 percent quota for either sex (2004).
Quotas were approved by BNG in 2002 (40 percent quota for either sex).
A 40 percent quota for either sex was approved by CC in 2000. (Party statutes, 2008, article 4:18.)
Party quotas: Zipper system (one sex alternates the other on party lists) (1993). Internal quotas since 1978
Party quotas: A 50% minimum quota for women on party lists (1993). First party quota rule introduced in 1987. Internal quotas since 1978
Party quota: A 50 % gender quota on party lists, plus minus one person (1997). First party quota rule introduced in 1987. Internal quotas since 1981.
Party quotas: Two women and two men shall be placed on the top four positions on the party list for the election to the European Parliament in 2009.
The party has a 40 percent quota for women on party lists.
The Democrat Party has a target of 30 percent women candidates for election
In 2001 the Liberal Democrats adopted a 40 percent target of women candidates, and at the same time rejected all-women shortlists. Prior to the 2005 elections, the party placed women in 40 percent of the "winnable seats". They implemented a "zipping" system on their candidate lists for the European election in 1999 which were conducted using List-PR, but did not use the zipping system in the European Parliament election of 2002.
Party members have two votes - one for a woman and one for a man. The man and woman with the most votes is selected.
In the 1980's PS adopted a quota for women. The quota is dependent upon the percentage of women members of the Party in each jurisdiction. (Statutes 2003, Art. 65)
ZANU-PF is committed to ensure that at least one-third of all candidates are female. However, this quota has not been systematically applied.
MDC-T shall work for the equal representation of women as far as possible in public office and within the Party (Constitution of MDC 3.3k). At their April 2011 Congress resolutions the party also made the promise to ensure that women hold 50% of all elected positions in public positions and within the party (Zimbabwe case study report p. 16). However, this target has not been achieved.
The information used to make this chart is courtesy of the Quota Project (September 2013).